Health and Fitness News – Discovery Learning

High-fat diet alters the dopamine and opioid systems: effects across development

The risk for obesity is significantly increased when a person eats a calorically dense, high-fat diet. The negative health consequences of obesity are well described, and include increased risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, high blood pres- sure, and joint and sleep problems. More recently, adverse effects on the brain and behavior have been documented, which will be the focus of the present review, specifically how consumption of a high-fat diet during different developmental time periods can affect the function of the reward system in the central nervous system (CNS).
The mesocorticolimbic reward circuitry refers to a series of interconnected brain regions that is activated by rewarding stimuli, including both natural rewards such as palatable foods or social interaction, as well as by drugs of abuse, such as cocaine or heroin. Typically, this circuitry refers to cells located within the midbrain structure of the ventral tegmental area, which project to forebrain structures, including the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) and the prefrontal cortex, with important contribu- tions from the amygdala and certain hypothalamic structures as well (for example, orexin in the lateral hypothalamus). Dopamine (DA) is present in concentrated cell groups in the midbrain and to a lesser extent in the hypothalamus and olfactory bulbs. There are four primary DA pathways: the mesolimbic, mesocortical, nigros- triatal and tuberoinfundibular pathways. DA projections from the ventral tegmental area to prefrontal cortex (mesocortical) and nucleus accumbens and amygdala (mesolimbic) projections have been implicated in reward and incentive motivation by natural and pharmacological reinforcers,1,2 novelty-seeking behavior3 and locomotor activity.4 Hypothalamic DA has an important role in neuroendocrine functions, particularly prolactin secretion,5 and is known to regulate food intake.6,7 The nigrostriatal pathway (damaged in Parkinson’s disease) is critical for the generation of movement. There are currently five known DA receptors, all of
which are G-protein-coupled receptors. The D1-like family includes D1 and D5, which are coupled to Gas and are considered stimulatory receptors. The D2-like family, D2, D3 and D4, is coupled to Gai, with D2 acting both presynaptically as an autoreceptor and postsynaptically. The primary site of expression of D1 and D2 receptors is the striatum,8 but both receptor subtypes have also been localized to the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex.9 DA uptake is facilitated by two transporters: vesicular monoamine transporter and, more specifically, the DA transporter (DAT), which clears DA from the synapse. Other important molecules related to dopaminergic function include DA- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32), a signaling molecule that acts downstream of both D1 and D2 receptors, and catechol-O-methyl transferase, an enzyme found in the synaptic cleft that degrades DA.
In addition to the DA system, opioids are also critical for encoding the rewarding properties of a stimulus.10,11 The opioid system has three endogenous ligands, encoded by precursors such as preproenkephalin (PENK), prodynorphin and pro-opiome- lanocortin. Similarly, there are three endogenous opioid receptors, delta, kappa and mu. With regard to consumption of a high-fat diet, PENK and m-opioid receptor (MOR) have been implicated as critical factors. Direct stimulation of the MOR by an agonist, such as PENK, specifically stimulates the consumption of high-fat food.

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Level 2 CYQ Aerobics Instructor Course at Discovery Learning

The Discovery Learning Aerobics Instructor training course is renowned for its quality and high first time pass rate.  This is made possible by the exceptional tutors that lead the course, all of whom are Master Aerobics Instructors with years of experience in teaching and tutoring YMCA exercise to music (aerobics) courses. The tutors will provide you with an enormous amount of support and encouragement and their knowledge and ingenuity in this field is second to none.  Feedback from this course is always exceptional with 96% students rating the course as good or excellent.
This Aerobics course is designed for people who wish to become Exercise to Music/ Aerobic Instructors. With this Central YMCA Aerobics Instructor Qualification you can gain employment with any of the major employers, or enjoy a more flexible approach as a freelance Aerobics Instructor. This Exercise to Music Training is a blended learning course. You will have a home study component followed by a number of attended practical workshop lead by master aerobics instructors who are amongst the top ten in the industry. Our Discovery Learning Aerobics Instructor (Exercise to Music) Training Courses are offered in Bournemouth and London. Once you have completed our Exercise to Music course you can register on the Register of Exercise Professionals (REPs) as a level 2 Exercise to Music Instructor.
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Exercise to Music Course Content:

The Aerobics Instructor certification (also known as Exercise to Music) qualification will develop you into a competent and confident Aerobics Instructor. You will learn to plan and instruct group exercise to music programmes in a variety of styles. These styles include designing classes such as sculpt, pump, dance etc. Thus allowing you a great variety of classes to ensure you are the top of the industry such as being a step aerobics instructor. You will master suitable moves to music, and proactive 32 beat combinations, cueing techniques and working with the beat and phrase of the music. Once you have completed this aerobic instructor certification you can then move onto the following qualifications: aqua aerobics instructor or water aerobics instructor, body pump, body combat, etc.

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Manchester Personal Trainer & Fitness Instructor Training Academy

The Discovery Learning Manchester Academy offers a wide range of facilities for students. There is a dedicated classroom and high quality state of the art gym. The students in Manchester are extremely lucky to have outstanding tutors who are highly experienced in fitness and nutrition. Our key aim is to ensure all students get a high level of service out of top leisure facilities in the UK.

Our Manchester Venue runs the following courses:

  • Personal Training Courses
  • Gym Instructor Courses
  • Nutrition for Physical Activity
  • Level 4 Obesity Management
  • Exercise Referral
  • Indoor Cycling Course
  • Circuit Training Course
  • Sports Massage Therapy Course
  • Introduction to Sports Injuries Course

Please click on the above links to find out more about the courses and dates.

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Armed Force Opportunities at Discovery Learning

Discovery Learning is delighted to announce that we are an approved fitness training provider registered with the Enhanced Learning Credits funding scheme aswell as the Career Transition Partnership. We are the leading supplier of fitness and Personal Training Courses to the military and our programmes offer the very best of value and quality.

If you are currently in the military, or have been in the past, Discovery Learning can help you further your training and education with a range of military resettlement courses relating to the health and fitness industry. We will then continue to support your journey towards a successful career in the health and fitness industry.

We understand the unique conditions associated with life in the military, and offer the most flexible approach to learning. We offer full time courses at a number of bases around the UK and can arrange assistance in finding accommodation near to any of our venues.

Our West London Academy is a recently refurbished training and education facility with two dedicated classrooms along with our own private gym for students. This venue lies only 5.4 miles from RAF Northolt which would offer an ideal MOD base for Service Leavers.
Our Bournemouth Academy is situated minutes from the beach, and we can include a fantastic accommodation package here if required.
Our Manchester Academy is located within David LLoyd Cheadle, a fantastic venue, with a dedicated classroom and high quality gym equipment. All of our venues have outstanding tutors.

We also offer part time courses which involve a certain amount of home study backed up by several practical tutorial days led by top tutors in the industry. In addition, exclusively for the military, we offer the ability to transfer course dates free of charge if the need arises. Discovery Learning also have very strong links into employers and we have a 100% placement of our graduates into top Personal Training clubs.

The health and fitness industry offers a wealth of opportunity for ex military personnel. Once qualified, Discovery Learning will support you in finding a job using our close links with the UK’s leading fitness companies. As a National Skills Academy Centre of Excellence, our graduates are highly respected in the industry. All of our courses have had approval from the top awarding bodies (CYQ and Active IQ) and all credit you with a minimum of 20 credits on the Register of Exercise Professionals.

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Insurance for Fitness Trainer and Personal Trainers

For newly qualified fitness professionals getting started can be a daunting prospect, and if you are thinking of working freelance then we recommend that the first thing you do is to invest in an appropriate professional insurance policy. For this to happen, it is almost certain that you have a recognised gym or fitness instructor qualification.

Insure4Sport Insuranceinsure4sport small

Discovery Learning has partnered with the UK’s No.1 provider of specialist sports insurance, insure4sport ( to offer all newly qualified Fitness Professionals 4-weeks FREE insurance covering £5m Public Liability and £1m Professional indemnity.
All Fitness Professionals need to be protected by a specialist insurance policy to provide protection should the worst happen. As a Discovery Learning student you can now benefit from this FREE insurance which also covers you for 48 other sports and activities!

Special Offer

Following your 4-week FREE insurance there is no obligation to continue, but should you wish to purchase an annual policy you will also benefit from a 10% discount.
To activate your FREE 4-week insurance cover simply click the following link and fill in your details –

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Full Time Personal Training Course at Discovery Learning

Completing a full time personal trainer course with discovery learning will set you up for your future career in the fitness industry. The course starts at the very beginning and qualifies you in Gym Instruction, Personal Training plus your unique chosen pathway. The qualifications are recognised worldwide and are highly respected within the industry. You will also be entitled to a professionally designed website, discount on exercise equipment, 4 weeks free insurance plus an extra discount if you continue the insurance and we have many strong links with employers should you want help finding work once graduated.

The full time personal training course is a very competitive price and is payable over 11 months. The course can be completed on a full time basis that comprises Monday to Friday learning, this takes only 6 weeks to complete. For those unable to study full time we do also have a part time option available which takes the form of distance learning and attendance weekends.

Full Time Personal Trainer Certificate Course Content:

The full time personal trainer option is highly appropriate for those wishing to study in an environment that will immerses them  in subject matter alongside other people with a like mindset in an intensive and highly supportive learning environment.  The Full Time Personal Trainer Certificate provides all of the foundation qualifications required to enter the fitness indusrty and the register of exercise professionals REP’s at level 3 and the YMCA qualification is the gold standard in the UK and overseas. The course consists of Level 2 Gym Instructor and Level 3 Personal Trainer components and takes only 5 weeks to complete studying 9.00 – 5.00 Monday to Friday.

Read More here about our  Level 3 Full Time Personal Trainer Certificate With Gym

To book on the full time personal trainer course, please feel free to call us on 0208 543 1017, email or visit our website

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Become an Exercise Specialist – Discovery Learning UK

Earning a Discovery Learning Exercise Specialist Certificate in your specialist area demonstrates that you have the knowledge to provide in-depth preventative and post-rehabilitative fitness programming and exercise routines for individuals who are at risk for or are recovering from a variety of cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic and musculoskeletal issues.

By becoming an Exercise Specialist, you will hold a superior qualification that is unparalleled in the industry. You will also be positioned to market your services directly to GP practices, physiotherapists, hospitals, community health clinics, senior facilities and other healthcare organizations. You will then be able to create exercise programs for their patients.

Traditionally personal trainers have been restricted to working with the “apparently healthy” category of individuals. Unfortunately, the number of overweight and obese individuals in the United Kingdom continues to increase at a time when our population is also getting older. Coupled with inactivity, poor dietary choices and related health factors, the result is an ever-increasing number of individuals who are at risk for or recovering from cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and a variety of orthopaedic issues (such as lower back pain). An advanced Exercise Specialist plays a crucial role in helping these individuals to decrease risk factors and improve health and fitness following a referral scheme.

Becoming an Exercise Specialist will prepare you to provide extensive programming for the most common diseases and disorders seen on a regular basis by personal trainers. This is an incredible opportunity that has been largely ignored and the possibilities for growth and professional recognition are virtually untapped.

Upon successful completion of one of the following qualifications will entitle you to work with referred and special populations to help them achieve active lives and healthy lifestyles.

Contact us today for more information on full time personal training courses in manchester, hounslow, london….

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